1 Ann Gibbons, ‘Food for Thought: Did the First Cooked Meals Help Fuel the Dramatic Evolutionary Expansion of the Human Brain?’, Science 316:5831 (2007), 1558-1560.

2 Robin Dunber, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

3 Michael L. Wilson and Richard W. Wrangham, ‘Intergroup Relations in Chimpanzees’, Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (2003), 363-392; M. McFarland Symington, ‘Fission-Fusion Social Organization in AtelesandPan’, International Journal of Primatology, 11:1 (1990), 49; Colin A. Chapman and Lauren J. Chapman, ‘Determinants of Groups Size in Primates: The Importance of Travel Costs’, in On the Move: How and Why Animals Travel in Groups, ed. Sue Boinsky and Paul A. Garber (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 26.

4 Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language, 69-79; Leslie C. Aiello and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language’, Current Anthropology 34:2 (1993), 189. For criticism of this approach see: Christopher McCarthy et al., ‘Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Network Size’, Human Organization 60:1 (2001), 32; R. A. Hill and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Social Network Size in Humans’, Human Nature 14:1 (2003), 65.

5 Yvette Taborin, ‘Shells of the French Aurignacian and Perigordian’, in Before Lascaux: The Complete Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic, ed. Heidi Knecht, Anne Pike-Tay and Randall White (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993), 211-28.

6 G.R. Summerhayes, ‘Application of PIXE-PIGME to Archaeological Analysis of Changing Patterns of Obsidian Use in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea’, in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory, ed. Steven M. Shackley (New York: Plenum Press, 1998), 129-58.

7 Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá, Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality (New York: Harper, 2010); S. Beckerman and P. Valentine (eds.), Cultures of Multiple Fathers:The Theory and Practice of Partible Paternity in Lowland South America (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002).

8 Noel G. Butlin, Economics and the Dreamtime:A Hypothetical History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 98-101; Richard Broome, Aboriginal Australians (Sydney: Allen & Unwin , 2002), 15; William Howell Edwards, An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies (Wentworth Falls, N.S.W.: Social Science Press, 1988), 52.

9 Fekri A. Hassan, Demographic Archaeology (New York: Academic Press, 1981), 196-99; Lewis Robert Binford, Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 143.

10 Brian Hare, The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think (Dutton: Penguin Group, 2013).

11 Christopher B. Ruff, Erik Trinkaus and Trenton W. Holliday, ‘Body Mass and Encephalization in Pleistocene Homo’, Nature 387 (1997), 173-176; M. Henneberg and M. Steyn, ‘Trends in Cranial Capacity and Cranial Index in Subsaharan Africa During the Holocene’, American Journal of Human Biology 5:4 (1993): 473-79; Drew H. Bailey and David C. Geary, ‘Hominid Brain Evolution: Testing Climatic, Ecological, and Social Competition Models’, Human Nature 20 (2009): 67-79; Daniel J. Wescott and Richard L. Jantz, ‘Assessing Craniofacial Secular Change in American Blacks and Whites Using Geometric Morphometry’, in Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology: Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, ed. Dennis E. Slice (New York: Plenum Publishers, 2005), 231-45.

12 Nicholas G. Blurton Jones et al., ‘Antiquity of Postreproductive Life: Are There Modern Impact on Hunter-Gatherer Postreproductive Life Spans?’, American Journal of Human Biology 14 (2002), 184-205.

13 Kim Hill and A. Magdalena Hurtado, Aché Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1996), 164, 236.

14 Hill and Hurtado, Aché Life History, 78.

15 Vincenzo Formicola and Alexandra P. Buzhilova, ‘Double Child Burial from Sunghir (Russia): Pathology and Inferences for Upper Paleolithic Funerary Practices’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 124:3 (2004), 189-98; Giacomo Giacobini, ‘Richness and Diversity of Burial Rituals in the Upper Paleolithic’, Diogenes 54:2 (2007), 19-39.

16 I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’, World Archaology 35:1 (2003), 145-65; Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57-73.

17 James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea) and the Archeology of Early Modern Humans’, in Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, ed. Paul Mellars, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Katie Boyle (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 395-410; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘When Did Humans First Arrived in Grater Australia and Why Is It Important to Know?’, Evolutionary Anthropology, 6:4 (1998), 132-46; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research’, Journal of Radiological Science 31:6 (2004), 835-53; Jon M. Erlandson, ‘Anatomically Modern Humans, Maritime Voyaging, and the Pleistocene Colonization of the Americas’, in The first Americans: the Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, ed. Nina G. Jablonski (San Francisco: University of California Press, 2002), 59-60, 63-64; Jon M. Erlandson and Torben C. Rick, ‘Archeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems’, Annual Review of Marine Science 2 (2010), 231-51; Atholl Anderson, ‘Slow Boats from China: Issues in the Prehistory of Indo-China Seafaring’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia, 16 (2000), 13- 50; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Maritime Navigation in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic’, Earth and Planetary Sciences 328 (1999), 559-60; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Seafaring in the Pleistocene’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13:1 (2003), 41-66.

18 Timothy F. Flannery, The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and Peoples (Port Melbourne, Vic.: Reed Books Australia, 1994); Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’, Science 306:5693 (2004): 70–75; Bary W. Brook and David M. J. S. Bowman, ‘The Uncertain Blitzkrieg of Pleistocene Megafauna’, Journal of Biogeography 31:4 (2004), 517–23; Gifford H. Miller et al., ‘Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction,’ Science 309:5732 (2005), 287–90; Richard G. Roberts et al., ‘New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent Wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago’, Science 292:5523 (2001), 1888–92.

19 Stephen Wroe and Judith Field, ‘A Review of Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’, Quaternary Science Reviews 25:21–22 (2006), 2692–2703; Barry W. Brooks et al., ‘Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct If Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent? Comments on ‘‘A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’’ by S. Wroe and J. Field’, Quaternary Science Reviews 26:3-4 (2007), 560-564; Chris S. M. Turney et al., ‘Late-Surviving Megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, Implicate Human Involvement in their Extinction’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:34 (2008), 12150-53.

20 John Alroy, ‘A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction’, Science, 292:5523 (2001), 1893-96; O’Connel and Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul’, 400-1.

21 L.H. Keeley, ‘Proto-Agricultural Practices Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross- Cultural Survey’, in Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, ed. T. Douglas Price and Anne Birgitte Gebauer (Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press, 1995), 243– 72; R. Jones, ‘Firestick Farming’, Australian Natural History 16 (1969), 224- 28.

22 David J. Meltzer, First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).

23 Paul L. Koch and Anthony D. Barnosky, ‘Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate’, The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37 (2006), 215-50; Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’, 70-5.

24 本地图主要参考: Peter Bellwood, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies (Malden: Blackwell Pub., 2005).

25 Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 130-131; Robert S. Walker and Drew H. Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence,’ Evolution and Human Behavior 34 (2013), 29-34.

26 Katherine A. Spielmann, ‘A Review: Dietary Restriction on Hunter-Gatherer Women and the Implications for Fertility and Infant Mortality’, Human Ecology 17:3 (1989), 321-45. 并请参见:Bruce Winterhalder and Eric Alder Smith, ‘Analyzing Adaptive Strategies: Human Behavioral Ecology at Twenty Five’, Evolutionary Anthropology 9:2 (2000), 51-72.

27 Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins and Hector Perez-Brignoli (eds.), Infant and Child Mortality in the Past (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997); Edward Anthony Wrigley et al., English Population History from Family Reconstitution, 1580-1837 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295-96, 303.

28 Manfred Heun et al., ‘Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprints’, Science 278:5341 (1997), 1312-14.

29 Charles Patterson, Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust (New York: Lantern Books, 2002), 9-10; Peter J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby (ed.), The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (London: Duckworth, 1969), 259.

30 Avi Pinkas (ed.), Farmyard Animals in Israel – Research, Humanism and Activity (Rishon Le-Ziyyon: The Association for Farmyard Animals, 2009 [Hebrew]), 169-199; “Milk Production – the Cow” [Hebrew], The Dairy Council, accessed March 22, 2012, http://www.milk.org.il/cgiwebaxy/sal/sal.pl?lang=he&ID=645657_

milk&act=show&dbid=katavot&dat aid=cow.htm

31 Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969); E.C. Amoroso and P.A. Jewell, ‘The Exploitation of the Milk-Ejection Reflex by Primitive People’, in Man and Cattle: Proceedings of the Symposium on Domestication at the Royal Anthropological Institute, 24-26 May 1960, ed. A.E. Mourant and F.E. Zeuner (London: The Royal Anthropological Institute, 1963), 129-34.

32 Johannes Nicolaisen, Ecology and Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg (Copenhagen: National Museum, 1963), 63.

33 Angus Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 2 (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006), 636; “Historical Estimates of World Population”, U.S. Census Bureau, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html.

34 Robert B. Mark, The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002), 24.

35 Raymond Westbrook, ‘Old Babylonian Period’, in A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law, vol. 1, ed. Raymond Westbrook (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 361- 430; Martha T. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 2nd ed. (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), 71-142; M. E. J. Richardson, Hammurabi’s Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary (London: T & T Clark International, 2000).

36 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 76.

37 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 121.

38 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 122-23.

39 Roth, Law Collections, 133-34.

40 Constance Brittaine Bouchard, Strong of Body, Brave and Noble: Chivalry and Society in Medieval France (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998), 99; Mary Martin McLaughlin, ‘Survivors and Surrogates: Children and Parents from the Ninth to Thirteenth Centuries’, in Medieval Families: Perspectives on Marriage, Household and Children, ed. Carol Neel (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 81 n. 81; Lise E. Hull, Britain's Medieval Castles (Westport: Praeger, 2006), 144.

41 Andrew Robinson, The Story of Writing (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 63; Hans J. Nissen, Peter Damerow and Robert K. Englung, Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East (Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993), 36.

42 Marcia and Robert Ascher, Mathematics of the Incas-Code of the Quipu (New York: Dover Publications, 1981).

43 Gary Urton. Signs of the Inka Khipu (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003); Galen Brokaw. A History of the Khipu (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

44 Stephen D. Houston (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History and Process (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 222.

45 Sheldon Pollock, ‘Axialism and Empire’, in Axial Civilizations and World History, ed. Johann P. Arnason, S. N. Eisenstadt and Bj.rn Wittrock (Leiden: Brill, 2005), 397-451.

46 Harold M. Tanner, China: A History (Indianapolis: Hackett, Pub. Co., 2009), 34.

47 Ramesh Chandra, Identity and Genesis of Caste System in India (Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2005); Michael Bamshad et al., ‘Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Population’, Genome Research 11 (2001): 904-1004; Susan Bayly, Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

48 Houston, First Writing, 196.

49 The Secretary-General, United Nations, Report of the Secretary-General on the In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women, delivered to the General Assembly, U.N. Doc. A/16/122/Add.1 (July 6, 2006), 89.

50 Sue Blundell, Women in Ancient Greece (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995), 113-29, 132-33.

51 Francisco López de Gómara, Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, vol. 1, ed. D. Joaquin Ramirez Caba.es (Mexico City: Editorial Pedro Robredo, 1943), 106.

52 Andrew M. Watson, ‘Back to Gold – and Silver’, Economic History Review 20:1 (1967), 11-12; Jasim Alubudi, Repertorio Bibliográfico del Islam (Madrid: Vision Libros, 2003), 194.

53 Watson, ‘Back to Gold – and Silver’, 17-18.

54 David Graeber, Debt: The First 5000 Years (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Melville House, 2011).

55 Glyn Davies, A History of Money: from Ancient Times to the Present Day (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1994), 15.

56 Szymon Laks, Music of Another World, trans. Chester A. Kisiel (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1989), 88-89. 奥斯维辛集中营的“市场”仅限于部分阶级的囚犯,而且在不同时期的差异非常大。

57 Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money (New York: The Penguin Press, 2008), 4.

58 关于麦元的信息,我参考了一本未出版的博士论文:Refael Benvenisti, Economic Institutions of Ancient Assyrian Trade in the Twentieth to Eighteenth Centuries BC (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 2011). 并请参见:Norman Yoffee, ‘The Economy of Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. J. M. Sasson (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1995), 1387-99; R. K. Englund, ‘Proto-Cuneiform Account-Books and Journals’, in Creating Economic Order: Record-keeping, Standardization, and the Development of Accounting in the Ancient Near East, ed. Michael Hudson and Cornelia Wunsch (Bethesda, MD: CDL Press, 2004), 21-46; Marvin A. Powell, ‘A Contribution to the History of Money in Mesopotamia prior to the Invention of Coinage’, in Festschrift Lubor Matou., ed. B. Hru.ka and G. Komoróczy (Budapest: E.tv.s Loránd Tudományegyetem, 1978), 211-43; Marvin A. Powell, ‘Money in Mesopotamia’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 39:3 (1996), 224-42; John F. Robertson, ‘The Social and Economic Organization of Ancient Mesopotamian Temples’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 443-500; M. Silver, ‘Modern Ancients’, in Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, ed. R. Rollinger and U. Christoph (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004), 65-87; Daniel C. Snell, ‘Methods of Exchange and Coinage in Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 1487-97.

59 Nahum Megged, The Aztecs (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1999 [Hebrew]), 103.

60 Tacitus, Agricola, ch. 30 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958), pp. 220-21.

61 A. Fienup-Riordan, The Nelson Island Eskimo: Social Structure and Ritual Distribution (Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1983), p. 10.

62 Yuri Pines, ‘Nation States, Globalization and a United Empire – the Chinese Experience (third to fifth centuries BC)’, Historia 15 (1995), 54 [Hebrew].

63 Alexander Yakobson, ‘Us and Them: Empire, Memory and Identity in Claudius Speech on Bringing Gauls into the Roman Senate’, in On Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Doron Mendels (Oxford: Peter Land, 2007), 23-24.

64 W.H.C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 2008), 536-37.

65 Robert Jean Knecht, The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483-1610 (London: Fontana Press, 1996), 424.

66 Marie Harm and Hermann Wiehle, Lebenskunde fuer Mittelschulen -Fuenfter Teil. Klasse 5 fuer Jungen (Halle: Hermann Schroedel Verlag, 1942), 152-57.

67 Susan Blackmore, The Meme Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

68 David Christian, Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 344-45; Angus Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 2 (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001), 636; ‘Historical Estimates of World Population’, U.S. Census Bureau, accessed December 10, 2010,


69 Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 261.

70"Gross Domestic Product 2009", The World Bank, Data and Statistics, accessed December 10, 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf

71 Christian, Maps of Time, 141.

72 当代最大的货轮能够承载大约10万吨的货物。在1470年,全球舰队船队加起来,承载量也不超过32万吨。到了1570年,总承载量已达到73万吨。(Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 97).

73 全球规模最大的银行,苏格兰皇家银行(Royal Bank of Scotland),于2007年申报的存款为1.3兆美元,是1500年全球总产值的五倍。参见 ‘Annual Report and Accounts 2008’, The Royal Bank of Scotland, 35, accessed December 10, 2010.


74 Ferguson, Ascent of Money,185-98.

75 Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 31; Wrigley, English PopulationHistory, 295; Christian, Maps of Time, 450, 452; ‘World Health Statistic Report 2009’, 35-45, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010 http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf.

76 Wrigley, English Population History, 296.

77 ‘England, Interim Life Tables, 1980-82 to 2007-09’, Office for National Statistics, accessed March 22, 2012


78 Michael Prestwich, Edward I (Berkley: University of California Press, 1988), 125-26.

79 Jennie B. Dorman et al., ‘The age-1 and daf-2 Genes Function in a Common Pathway to Control the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans’, Genetics 141:4 (1995), 1399-1406; Koen Houthoofd et al., ‘Life Extension via Dietary Restriction is Independent of the Ins/IGF-1 Signaling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans’, Experimental Gerontology 38:9 (2003), 947-54.

80 Shawn M. Douglas, Ido Bachelet, and George M. Church, ‘A Logic-Gated Nanorobot for Targeted Transport of Molecular Payloads’, Science 335:6070 (2012): 831-4; Dan Peer et al., ‘Nanocarriers As An Emerging Platform for Cancer Therapy’, Nature Nanotechnology 2 (2007): 751-60; Dan Peer et al., ‘Systemic Leukocyte-Directed siRNA Delivery Revealing Cyclin D1 as an Anti-Inflammatory Target’, Science 319:5863 (2008): 627-30.

81 Stephen R. Bown, Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Matin's Press, 2004); Kenneth John Carpenter, The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

82 James Cook, The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific, as Told by Selections of his Own Journals 1768-1779, ed. Archibald Grenfell Price (New York : Dover Publications, 1971), 16-17; Gananath Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 5; J.C. Beaglehole, ed., The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery, vol. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 588.

83 Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 81.

84 Christian, Maps of Time, 436.

85 John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire since 1405 (London: Allen Lane, 2007), 239.

86 Soli Shahvar, ‘Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia’, in the Online Edition of Encyclopaedia Iranica, last modified April 7, 2008,


Charles Issawi, ‘The Iranian Economy 1925-1975: Fifty Years of Economic Development’, in Iran under the Pahlavis, ed. George Lenczowski (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 156.

87 Mark, The Origins of the Modern World,46.

88 Kirkpatrik Sale, Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise (London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006), 7-13.

89 Edward M. Spiers, The Army and Society: 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980), 121; Robin Moore, ‘Imperial India, 1858-1914’, in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, ed. Andrew Porter (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 442.

90 Vinita Damodaran, ‘Famine in Bengal: A Comparison of the 1770 Famine in Bengal and the 1897 Famine in Chotanagpur’, The Medieval History Journal 10:1-2 (2007), 151.

91 Maddison, World Economy, vol. 1, 261, 264; ‘Gross National Income Per Capita 2009, Atlas Method and PPP’, The World Bank, accessed December 10, 2010,


92 这里举的面包店例子在计算上经过简化,并非完全精确。因为银行金库中每存有1元就能贷出10元,如果银行现在有100万美元的存款,其实只能贷出约909000美元,而必须将91000美元留在金库里。但为了方便读者理解,我还是决定将数字简化。此外,银行也并不总是遵守这些法规。

93 Carl Trocki, Opium, Empire and the Global Political Economy (New York: Routledge, 1999), 91.

94 Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People's History (London: Zed Books, 2002), 22.

95 Mark, Origins of the Modern World,109.

96 Nathan S. Lewis and Daniel G. Nocera, ‘Powering the Planet: Chemical Challenges in Solar Energy Utilization’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:43 (2006), 15731.

97 Kazuhisa Miyamoto (ed.), ‘Renewable Biological Systems for Alternative Sustainable Energy Production’, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 128 (Osaka: Osaka University, 1997), chapter 2.1.1, accessed December 10, 2010,

http://www.fao.org/docrep/W7241E/w7241e06.htm#2.1.1percent20solarperc ent20energy;

James Barber, ‘Biological Solar Energy’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365:1853 (2007), 1007.

98 ‘International Energy Outlook 2010’, U.S. Energy Information Administration, 9, accessed December 10, 2010,


99 S. Venetsky, ‘"Silver"from Clay’, Metallurgist 13:7 (1969), 451; Aftalion, Fred, A History of the International Chemical Industry (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 64; A. J. Downs, Chemistry of Aluminum, Gallium, Indium and Thallium (Glasgow: Blackie Academic & Professional, 1993), 15.

100 Jan Willem Erisman et al, ‘How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World’ in Nature Geoscience 1 (2008), 637.

101 G. J. Benson and B. E. Rollin (eds.), The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions (Ames, IA: Blackwell, 2004); M .C. Appleby, J. A. Mench, and B. O. Hughes, Poultry Behaviour and Welfare (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2004); J. Webster, Animal Welfare: Limping Towards Eden (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005); C. Druce and P. Lymbery, Outlawed in Europe: How America Is Falling Behind Europe in Farm Animal Welfare (New York: Archimedean Press, 2002).

102 Harry Harlow and Robert Zimmermann, ‘Affectional Responses in the Infant Monkey’, Science 130:3373 (1959), 421-432; Harry Harlow, ‘The Nature of Love’, American Psychologist 13 (1958), 673-685; Laurens D. Young et al., ‘Early stress and later response to seprate in rhesus monkeys’, American Journal of Psychiatry 130:4 (1973), 400-405; K. D. Broad, J. P. Curley and E. B. Keverne, ‘Mother-infant bonding and the evolution of mammalian social relationships’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Soceity B 361:1476 (2006), 2199-2214; Florent Pittet et al., ‘Effects of maternal experience on fearfulness and maternal behaviour in a precocial bird’, Animal Behavior (March 2013), In Press-available online at:


103"National Institute of Food and Agriculture", United States Department of Agriculture, accessed December 10, 2010,


104 Vaclav Smil, The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002); Sarah Catherine Walpole et al., ‘The Weight of Nations: An Estimation of Adult Human Biomass’, BMC Public Health 12:439 (2012),


105 William T. Jackman, The Development of Transportation in Modern England (London: Frank Cass & co., 1966), 324-27; H. J. Dyos and D.H. Aldcroft, British Transport-An economic survey from the seventeenth century to the twentieth (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1969), 124-31; Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century (Berkeley: Univeristy of California Press, 1986).

106 关于过去这几十年前所未有的和平状态,特别可参见:Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein, Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide (New York, N.Y.: Dutton, 2011); Gat, War in Human Civilization.

107 ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/whr01_annex_en.pdf.

之前时代的死亡率请参见: Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

108 ‘World Health Report, 2004’, World Health Organization, 124, accessed 10 December, 2010,


109 Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000), 21. See also Gat, War in Human Civilization, 129-31; Keeley, War before Civilization.

110 Manuel Eisner, ‘Modernization, Self-Control and Lethal Violence’, British Journal of Criminology 41:4 (2001), 618-638; Manuel Eisner, ‘Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 30 (2003), 83-142; ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed December 10, 2010,

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111 Walker and Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence,’ 30.

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